Eugene IV, Pope 1431-1447

Muntoni 8; Berman 303, PCGS graded XF-40

Rome. EVGEnIVS PP QVARTVS, Pope Eugene IV enthroned facing, raising hand in benediction and holding cruciform scepter. Reverse: + ROMA CAPVT MVNDI S P Q R, crossed keys; above, shield.

When he was elected pope on March 3, 1431, Gabriele Condulmer took the throne name of Eugene IV. Much of his reign was taken up with his personal struggle against the Council of Basel (1431-1439), which had been called in response to the Hussite Wars and the increasing Ottoman threat to Europe, but which also challenged papal supremacy. Thus in 1437 Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara (later moved to Florence) for which the Council of Basel condemned him as a heretic and elected the anti-pope Felix V in 1439. Eugene IV and the Council of Florence negotiated a union with the eastern churches separated from Rome by the Great Schism of 1054 and declared a disastrous crusade against the Ottomans. Nevertheless, by the time of his death he was again the recognized pope and the rulers of Europe had declared against Felix V.