Gregory IV, Pope 827-844

Muntoni 2; Berman 21, Extremely Fine

Rome, with Louis the Pious. * SCS PETRVS, +/GRE/II. Reverse: + LVDOVVICVS I(MP), monogram of ROMA.

The Carolingian Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire had been an important support and tool for establishing the independence of the Papacy and when the decisions of Louis the Pious threatened to destroy the Empire, it was left to Pope Gregory IV to try and hold it together. In 829, the Pope tried to dissuade the Holy Roman Emperor from revising his division of the Empire to include Charles the Bald, a son by Louis’ second wife. When this failed and war broke out between Louis the Pious and Lothair I, Pepin I of Aquitaine, and Louis the German (all sons by his first wife) in 833, Gregory IV attempted to intervene and force peace on the grounds that his authority derived from St. Peter was greater than that of the Emperor. Nevertheless, his interference in Carolingian dynastic politics was ultimately a failure and the Empire was finally broken up in 843 although Lothair I retained the imperial title and possession of Italy.