Martin V, Pope 1417-1431
Muntoni 41; Berman 280, PCGS graded MS-62
Bologna. + mARTInVS P-P QVInTVS, tiara over shield with crowned column. Reverse: S PETRVS A-POSTOL, St. Peter standing facing, holding keys; in right field, shield.
The election of Odone Colonna as Pope Martin V by the Council of Constance on November 11, 1417, marked the end of the Western Schism (1378-1417). Pope Martin V slowly progressed through Italy, gaining additional territories for the Papal States through negotiation with local rulers on the way. Once he reached Rome in 1420 he declared crusades against the Hussites of Bohemia and the Ottoman Turks and promised to initiate the reforms demanded by the Council of Constance. However, real reform was not forthcoming and instead Martin V spent most of his reign consolidating papal possessions and restoring Rome. The impressive crowned column reverse on this gold ducat and the column symbol on the following silver coin are the punning arms of the Colonna noble house of Tusculum.